Transport and Deposition of Polymer-Modified Fe-0 Nanoparticles in 2-D Heterogeneous Porous Media: Effects of Particle Concentration, Fe-0 Content, and Coatings
|Title||Transport and Deposition of Polymer-Modified Fe-0 Nanoparticles in 2-D Heterogeneous Porous Media: Effects of Particle Concentration, Fe-0 Content, and Coatings|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2010|
|Authors||Phenrat, T, Cihan, A, Kim, HJ, Mital, M, Illangasekare, T, Lowry, GV|
|Journal||Environmental Science & Technology|
Concentrated suspensions of polymer-modified Fe-0 nanoparticles (NZVI) are injected into heterogeneous porous media for groundwater remediation. This study evaluated the effect of porous media heterogeneity and the dispersion properties including particle concentration, Fe-0 content, and adsorbed polymer mass and layer thickness which are expected to affect the delivery and emplacement of NZVI in heterogeneous porous media in a two-dimensional (2-D) cell. Heterogeneity in hydraulic conductivity had a significant impact on the deposition of NZVI. Polymer modified NZVI followed preferential flow paths and deposited in the regions where fluid shear is insufficient to prevent NZVI agglomeration and deposition. NZVI transported in heterogeneous porous media better at low particle concentration (0.3 g/L) than at high particle concentrations (3 and 6 g/L) due to greater particle agglomeration at high concentration. High Fe-0 content decreased transport during injection due to agglomeration promoted by magnetic attraction. NZVI with a flat adsorbed polymeric layer (thickness similar to 30 nm) could not be transported effectively due to pore clogging and deposition near the inlet, while NZVI with a more extended adsorbed layer thickness (i.e., similar to 70 nm) were mobile in porous media. This study indicates the importance of characterizing porous media heterogeneity and NZVI dispersion properties as part of the design of a robust delivery strategy for NZVI in the subsurface.