Electromagnetic Induction of Zerovalent Iron (ZVI) Powder and Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron (NZVI) Particles Enhances Dechlorination of Trichloroethylene in Contaminated Groundwater and Soil: Proof of Concept
|Electromagnetic Induction of Zerovalent Iron (ZVI) Powder and Nanoscale Zerovalent Iron (NZVI) Particles Enhances Dechlorination of Trichloroethylene in Contaminated Groundwater and Soil: Proof of Concept
|Year of Publication
|Phenrat, T, Thongboot, T, Lowry, GV
|Environmental Science & Technology
|872 - 880
This study evaluates the concept of using zerovalent iron (ZVI) powder or nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles in combination with a low frequency (150 kHz) AC electromagnetic field (AC EMF) to effectively remove trichloroethylene (TCE) from groundwater and saturated soils. ZVI and NZVI are ferromagnetic, which can induce heat under applied AC EMF. The heat generated by ZVI and NZVI induction can increase the rate of dechlorination, according to Arrhenius’ equation, and increase the rate of TCE desorption from TCE-sorbed soil. Both dechlorination and TCE desorption enhance the overall TCE removal rate. We evaluated this novel concept in laboratory batch reactors. We found that both ZVI and NZVI can induce heat under applied AC EMF up to 120 °C in 20 min. Using ZVI and NZVI with AC EMF enhanced dechlorination of dissolved TCE (no soil) up to 4.96-fold. In addition to increasing the temperature by ZVI and NZVI induction heating, AC EMF increased intrinsic ZVI and NZVI reactivity, ostensibly due to accelerated corrosion, as demonstrated by the increased ORP. In a soil-water-TCE system, NZVI together with AC EMF thermally enhanced desorption of TCE from soil and increased the degradation of TCE up to 5.36-fold compared to the absence of AC EMF. For the first time, this study indicates the potential for ZVI and NZVI coupled with AC EMF as a combined remediation technique for increasing the rate and completeness of in situ cleanup of adsorbed phase contaminants.
|Environ. Sci. Technol.