Electromagnetic induction of foam-based nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles to thermally enhance non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) volatilization in unsaturated porous media: Proof of concept
|Title||Electromagnetic induction of foam-based nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) particles to thermally enhance non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) volatilization in unsaturated porous media: Proof of concept|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2017|
|Authors||Srirattana, S, Piaowan, K, Lowry, GV, Phenrat, T|
|ISBN Number||1879-1298 (Electronic)<br/>0045-6535 (Linking)|
Nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) is a promising remediation agent for volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination in saturated sub-surfaces, but is rarely applied to the vadose zone as there are not enough water molecules in the unsaturated zone to participate in reductive dechlorination. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of using foam as a carrying vehicle to emplace NZVI in unsaturated porous media followed by the application of low frequency-electromagnetic field (LF-EMF) to enhance VOC volatilization in laboratory batch reactors. We found that the optimal condition for generating foam-based NZVI (F-NZVI) was using sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) at a concentration of 3% (w/w) and a N2 flow rate of 500 mL/min. Also, F-NZVI could carry as much as 41.31 g/L of NZVI in the liquid phase of the foam and generate heat to raise DeltaT to 77 degrees C in 15 min under an applied LF-EMF (150 kHz and 13 A). Under these conditions, F-NZVI together with LF-EMF enhanced trichloroethylene (TCE) volatilization from TCE-dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in unsaturated sand by 39.51 +/- 6.59-fold compared to reactors without LF-EMF application. This suggested that using F-NZVI together with LF-EMF could theoretically be an alternative to radio frequency heating (RFH) as it requires a much lower irradiation frequency (336-fold lower), which should result in significantly lower capital and operational costs compared to RFH.