X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was applied to investigate Mn(II) removal by MnOx(s)-coated media under experimental conditions similar to the engineered environment of drinking water treatment plants in the absence and presence of chlorine. Macroscopic and spectroscopic results suggest that Mn(II) removal at pH 6.3 and pH 7.2 in the absence of chlorine was mainly due to adsorption onto the MnOx(s) surface coating, while removal in the presence of chlorine was due to a combination of initial surface adsorption followed by subsequent surface-catalyzed oxidation. However, Mn(III) was identified by XPS analyses of the Mn 3p photoline for experiments performed in the absence of chlorine at pH 6.3 and pH 7.2, suggesting that surface-catalyzed Mn oxidation also occurred at these conditions. Results obtained at pH 8.2 at 8 and 0.5 mg·L–1 dissolved oxygen in the absence of chlorine suggest that Mn(II) removal was mainly due to initial adsorption followed by surface-catalyzed oxidation. XPS analyses suggest that Mn(IV) was the predominant species in experiments operated in the presence of chlorine. This study confirms that the use of chlorine combined with the catalytic action of MnOx(s) oxides is effective for Mn(II) removal from drinking water filtration systems.